Pool Fundamentals

It’s been a while since the last installment in my series of articles on pool. Hopefully, you have taken the prior instructions and practiced them; perhaps you have had some success, maybe some challenges. Good. Let’s move on…

The key to playing pocket billiards well is consistency. If a player fails in a shot attempt or position for the next shot, there should be a method of evaluation and adjustment. However, if there is no mechanical standard as a foundation, then how can you make an adjustment?

The best players establish the same stance, stroke, aim, and even thought processes, and maintain that standard. This is achieved through concentrated practice.

During practice sessions, slow down, and pay attention to what your body is doing.


There are diverse methods for dictating how to assume a good stance. But I’m not going to address any of them here. Instead, I’m going to give you some guidelines and encourage you to experiment and discover what works best for you.

  1. For over 99% of shots, both of your feet will be on the floor. If you have to stretch beyond that, you need to acquaint yourself with the mechanical bridge. Every good player knows this piece of equipment, and is not afraid to use what I’ve heard called “the sissy stick”. Snooker players become exceptionally proficient with it (regulation snooker tables are 10’ x 5’). Just think of it as a very steady means of going where your left hand (if you’re right handed) cannot go.
  2. If you are off-balance, that’s how you will shoot. Position your feet, legs, and body to give balance and support.
  3. Turn and bend your body in such a way that it does not obstruct a straight stroke from your carriage (back hand) to your bridge hand. This is especially crucial to larger framed people, like me.
  4. Position your head, and more specifically your dominant eye, directly above your cue as low as possible. Allison Fisher, one of the best players in the world, literally rests her chin lightly on her cue. This not only provides greater accuracy, but also gives a control meter. If for some reason her stroke is not smooth and straight, she will feel it. If you don’t get your head as low as possible, you are “shooting from the hip” (as they say). Accuracy is compromised.
  5. Once you are in this position, there are only two parts of your body that should move, which brings me to…


If you have not visualized the shot, why are you shooting it? Before taking your stance to address the shot, take the time to look around the table. Examine the situation, not only the current shot, but look ahead. Most players look at least two shots beyond the current. This should affect how you play the shot you’re about to take. Then, look at what must be done with this first shot to achieve your plan. Now, you’re ready to take your stance and begin aiming at the spot you have already determined.

In your stance, your eyes should move between your target-spot and the cue ball at first. Draw an imaginary line between the two points. This is your path. Your stroke will line up with the path as you line up the shot. Look at your cue stick as you take warm-up strokes. Ensure that it is moving directly on the path and the tip of your cue will strike the cue ball where you want it to. Then, and this crucial… DO NOT LOOK AT THAT CUE BALL AGAIN! It’s a constant. It’s not going to suddenly move on you. You have assured yourself through warm-up strokes that your cue is aimed on your intended path. Look at your target-spot on the object ball. Focus on it. The cue ball will go where you send it, so it’s not even relevant to your aiming process now.


Warm-up strokes are essential. They assure that you will be shooting where you intended. How many warm-up strokes should you take? As many as you need to ensure accuracy and control; and then add a couple more for the feel of the shot. With more difficult shots, take more. As long as your warm-up strokes are consistent with the execution stroke (when you actually shoot), your movement should be programmed so that you could literally close your eyes at the point of execution, and still deliver the shot with accuracy.

When I say “accuracy”, I am not suggesting that you will make every shot. I am saying that, if you follow these procedures, you will deliver the shot that you intended. If you miss the shot, it could mean you visualized in error (in other words, you aimed wrong).

Herein lies my point about consistency in the mechanical processes. There could be an infinity of reasons why a shot is unsuccessful. Improvement comes from analyzing the unsuccessful attempts, more than the successes. But, if there are no constants (in other words, every time you shoot is a completely different experience), how can you make adjustments?

For example, if I have been, through concentrated practice, consistent in the mechanics of my game, and yet I missed the shot, then I have a basis by which to examine why it happened. Maybe I aimed incorrectly. Maybe I moved my head when I know I shouldn’t. Perhaps I shot too hard, or not hard enough. Maybe I applied accidental English (spin) to the cue ball, which changes everything about the shot.

Sometimes, we rush shots. We are presented with a shot or position that seems so simple, we skip the processes. In all of the Kingdom of Pocket Billiards, there is nothing more humiliating than missing the simple shot because we “took it for granted”. Unless you are competing in a tournament where there is a shot clock employed, there is no good reason for any player to skip the steps. And as a side note about these “shot clock” tournaments, the competitors in these should already be so adept at the basic steps that they can swiftly do them. If that’s not you yet, don’t play in that kind of tournament. My first article on pool talked about “controlling the rhythm of the game”. Here’s a principle to consider: If you have established (again through concentrated practice) a rhythm through which you are able to flow through the processes successfully, and you suddenly don’t, you are not controlling your rhythm. You’re not playing your best game. Here is an exercise to practice:

You are faced with an incredibly basic and simple shot. I mean it’s practically an insult to your pool-playing prowess. Go slowly through all of the mechanical processes, then just before you shoot, STOP. Stand up. Walk around the table at least once. Chalk your cue (don’t you hate missing a simple shot because you miscued?). Go slowly through the processes again. You might feel silly, but it will pay off in the long run!


Pool Basics

So many instructional books and articles for various skills give specific fundamentals and assume they are universal. Really… you’re not going to become a good pool player by reading this or any article or book.  You may, however, improve your game by applying some basic guidelines and practicing solid fundamentals. This is a universal truth!

*** Your Dominant Eye ***

Everyone has one eye that is dominant over the other. Perhaps you don’t know which is yours. This simple test will determine for you.

Pick an object to focus on. While looking directly at the object, create a frame around it with your hands, centering the object within that frame. Now, close one eye. Is the object still in the center of the frame? Now, close the other eye. Where is the object? When looking with your dominant eye, the object will remain centered in the frame. But, with your non-dominant eye, you may not even see the object, but will be looking at your hand.

Determining your dominant eye is important because you will be lining up your aim with your dominant eye.

*** Holding Your Cue ***

Assuming you are right-handed, your right arm will be your “stroke arm”, and your left hand will be your “bridge hand”. The two primary objectives for your method of holding your cue stick are:

  • Control– Your stroke and bridge should work together to deliver the shot true to your aim. If you shoot according to your aim, and you miss the shot, its because you aimed wrong. However, if there’s a hitch in your stroke or your bridge is not giving enough control, there’s really no point in your aiming.
  • Comfort– Playing pool involves some stretching, lots of bending, and body awareness. To play well, you must establish balance and consistency in your stance, stroke, bridge, and visualization. Seems like a lot, huh? Like anything else in this life that you may want to be good at, it takes persistence. The great basketball players shoot their best shots exactly the same countless times, until it becomes automatic.

Find the proper grip spot for your stroke hand by holding the cue and finding the balance point, the place where you can hold the cue stick balancing it on two fingers. Now move toward the butt of the cue two-to-four fingers width. That grip spot will be perfect for almost every stroke situation you encounter. Hold the stick loosely, cradling it between your thumb and fingers. If the stick touches your palm, you are holding it too tightly, and your stroke will be terrible.

*** Bridge Issues ***

There are three basic bridges and innumerable variations of each. Hands are shaped differently; and in the course of the game, countless situations arise, requiring adjustments. When I used to teach the billiards class in college, I strongly urged students to perfect the closed bridge. When formed properly, it provides the most control. However, it is difficult to master. The basic closed bridge involves forming a ring with the thumb and forefinger. Some beginners will attempt to form the closed bridge without closing the ring. They will simply lay the forefinger over top of the cue. This is so counter-protective to any control, they should be shooting blindfolded. But done properly, the cue passes through that ring and rides on top of the middle finger. The middle, ring, and little fingers should be spread as much as possible for a stable base. When possible, the heel of the hand should be resting on the table as well. The thumb-and-forefinger ring should be loose enough to allow smooth movement of the cue without finger or hand movement; yet snug enough to keep it stroking in a straight line.

The open bridge is simpler, and more commonly used for that reason. Again, the bridge hand should be stabilized on the table, four fingers spread as much as possible for support, and the thumb pressed tightly toward the innermost-knuckle of the forefinger. This forms a ridge for the stick to ride between the thumb knuckle and the forefinger knuckle. The open bridge can be more comfortable to form, but some control is lost. The tendency of open- bridgers is to raise the cue completely off the bridge instead of following through on their shot.

The third basic bridge is the rail bridge. It is perhaps the most commonly misused bridge form. When the cue ball is close to a rail and you have no other choice, its good to know how to properly form a rail bridge. Place your bridge hand on the rail. Tuck your thumb under your hand toward the middle finger. Slide the cue against the back of your straightened thumb. Spread your fingers and place your forefinger over the top of the cue stick, until it touches the rail also. Do not let any of your fingers or your hand move.

A common error a lot of novices make when the cue ball is close to the rail, is elevating the butt of the cue stick and striking downward on the cue ball. This mistake is worthy of mentioning. There are many things that will likely go wrong in that scenario.

  1. If you shoot down on the cue ball and hit anything other than center (not to the left or right), you are curving the cue ball. This is called massé. If you don’t adjust your aim to accommodate for the curve, you miss the shot. Sound familiar?
  2. If you shoot down on the ball center, you are jumping the cue ball. It may hardly be noticeable, but again, it alters the path of the cue ball. If you don’t know how to aim for a jump shot, don’t try it! And by the way, its illegal to jump the cue ball by scooping under it and lifting. It’s a foul, and doing it is foul!
  3. When you are aiming a shot, you must look through the cue ball to the point on the object ball (or cushion) that you desire to hit. (More on aiming mechanics later!) When shooting down on the cue ball, the tendency is to look at it. If you insist on raising the butt of your cue because the cue ball is close to a rail, just close your eyes!

Sometimes, when the cue ball is against a rail, the best move is to form an open bridge as close as possible, yet leaving room for stoke. I call this a “hanging open bridge” because sometimes only your fingers are touching the outer edge of the table. But this will enable you to keep the cue level.

*** Taking Your Stance ***

And finally for this installment, let’s talk about your body. Some instructional books and articles will recommend certain distance between your feet and placing them at certain angles, etc. But I’m here to tell you that a six-foot-four-inch body, like mine, has to do something different than the body of a five-foot-five woman, in order to get down over a shot. People’s bodies are shaped differently. Even health issues and flexibility are factors in your stance.

So, I’m going to give you some guidelines, and then its up to you to find the best method to achieve them for yourself.

  • Balance- You must be stable. If you are unsteady or off balance, you are not only unsafe; you are ineffective. Your body will move in ways you don’t want it to do.
  • Consistency- Once you find the way for you that works, stick to it as often as possible. Yes, there will be times when you have to adjust. But, understanding your body mechanics will enable you to make intelligent adjustments.
  • Get your dominant eye as close over top of your cue as possible- Many of the best players in the world will actually lightly rest their chin on the cue stick. They use that riding as assurance that they are stroking straight in line with their aim.
  • Do not move your head- Sometimes I’m bad about this one, and consequently, my game suffers.
  • Notice your stroke arm’s position and movement- The upper portion of your stroke arm should be parallel to the floor throughout the entire stroke. If you are dipping it, your stoke will be inaccurate. You will not be hitting the cue ball where you want, and you will probably have some side-to-side movement as well. Do not move your upper arm at all! Below the elbow, your stroke arm should swing smoothly like a pendulum, forward and back. Keep the movement fluid and straight!
  • Your bridge arm should be at an angle- If you try to lock the elbow or keep the arm straight (for most shots), you will be forcing your cue away from your body, requiring you to twist some more in order to keep your dominant eye over top the stick.

This concludes this installment. Remember to practice good fundamentals until they are natural for you. You will like the game better when you play better. Have fun!


I have often made light of my own physical pain by saying: “Pain is your body’s way of saying you’re alive! Some of us are just more alive than others.” Or I’ve been heard to say, “It’s only pain” (which is the little boy in me who wants to scream and cry trying to be a big boy because my dad always said “men don’t cry!”).

Recently, I’ve been spending a lot of time and energy trying to help a dear friend through withdrawal from two powerfully addictive prescription pain medications, morphine and percoset, which are both narcotics.

She was prescribed these for pain management in preparation for necessary back surgery about nine months ago. As one psychiatrist recently stated, she should never have been allowed to continue on those prescriptions that long. She hasn’t had the surgery yet, but those meds were only intended to be for short-term use, due to the severity of their addictive and psychological effects.

So, when my friend was cut off, she was faced with “cold turkey”. This actually brings me to my topic. Continue reading Pain

More On Pool

“Try to avoid pocketing the cue ball. In Just Showin’ Off, world-famous player Steve Mizerak was marveling that he’d actually read these words in a pool instruction book. I laughed, too.

However painfully obvious that statement may be, learning to practice this principle is an even more painful process. I was just watching the 2003 Mosconi Cup on ESPN Classic, pitting five of the USA’s best against Europe’s five best in 9 ball. I enjoy watching the best players in the world compete, whether live or on TV. In a very exciting game between Johnny “The Scorpion” Archer (USA) and “The Iceman” Mika Immonen (I think I spelled that right), Johnny had a jump shot to strike the 3 ball (located about the middle of the head string area) and send it in a combination to pocket the 8 ball (which sat in front of the corner pocket). Although I don’t like jumping, myself (I’d rather kick or masse), all of the top players are generally comfortable with jump shots. Some, Earl “The Pearl” Strickland for example, have even polished it to an art. The Scorpion made the shot, but after hitting the 3 ball exactly the way it needed to, the cue ball then scratched in the side pocket, giving the Iceman cue ball in-hand, and the game. Archer dropped his head as he watched the cue ball drop. He knew the game was lost.

Games, matches, momentum, and much prize money can so swiftly flip sides on a scratch. But, if the best players in the world can’t always keep the cue ball on the table, what hope is there for the rest of us? I’m here to tell you… sometimes the white rock will fit in the pocket just as well as any of the other balls. Many years ago, Willie Mosconi established the world record for balls run in 14.1 Continuous (also commonly called “Straight Pool”) of 526 without missing, fouling, or scratching. The great cue master wrote several instructional books, and the common explanation he gave was “limit the amount of cue ball movement”. If you don’t absolutely have to send the cue ball to a rail, DON’T DO IT! If you don’t absolutely have to shoot hard, DON’T DO IT! If you don’t absolutely have to send the cue ball in to break a cluster of balls… well, I think you get it.

In the game of chess, I received a solid fundamental education from an excellent player. He told me that, while capturing the opponent’s king is the obvious end goal, if the intent of every move is an assault on the king, you will lose. He said the true object of winning at chess is to gain and maintain control of the four squares in the center of the board. This serves both offensively and defensively. You may be wondering why, in the middle of an article on pool, am I talking about chess? As the four-center-square principle is to chess, cue ball control is to pool. While the end goal may be to pocket balls, the means to victory is in making the “snowball” roll where you want it to go. Willie Mosconi didn’t set that world record by shooting a lot of hard shots. He was certainly able, if needed. But, he shot well over 500 easy shots!

For a straight pool player with less talent than Willie Mosconi possessed (which would include… well, everybody!), there is an advantage in non-rotational games. If you are out-of-line for your intended next shot, you can usually turn to what’s called a “b-ball”, or even a “c”. In other words, there’s usually some alternatives. However, in 9 ball and other rotational games, your next ball is pre-determined (if not pocketing, at least you know you need to be able to hit it!). A professional player who taught me a lot about the game in my youth (some rather expensive lessons, I might add!), Joe Kerr, told me that you should always practice rotational games. “It forces you to concentrate on position” he said. I watch players practicing 9 ball, and if they mess up on their position, they just move the cue ball. Since its their practice session, they are free to do something that does not prepare them fora real game situation if they want. When I practice 9 ball, I play it as if I’m really in a game situation. If I’m snookered, I try to make a legal shot. Like in golf, I play it where it lies.

And another tip Joe had given me about practice was to use a striped ball as the cue ball. This makes the spin and roll more visible for examination. Concentrate on what the cue ball is doing after the contact. Learning what various angles and spins will make it do, will prove priceless. So much said just about the white rock; and yet so much more could and probably be said.

Its all about POSITION! Bad pool players don’t care what the cue ball is going to do. They may be amazing shot-makers, and occasionally pull a few victories out of their- hat, but in the long run, they will not win. Novice players don’t know what the cue ball will do, so they are at it’s mercy. And it may be cruel sometimes! Smart players study the actions of the “pale problem-child” and learn. They become good players who can put together pretty respectable runs, and win more than they lose.

This is where I am. “I can handle anything but moderation” I’ve been heard to declare many times, as my excess delivers the consequences. I tend to use too much English, and either too much speed or not enough speed to get the cue ball to always obey me. And when I’m out-of-line (even a few inches) for my next shot, it begins a progression that will sometimes get me an eight-ball run in 9 ball. But I’ve gotten further and further from the smart way to play the table, until I’m stuck with a tough shot on the 9. I miss. I lose.

Here’s a major distinction between a “good” player and a really-good player. The really-good player will occasionally mess-up on their shape. But they recover immediately. They don’t go astray, over-compensate, and face progressively tougher shots. They get back in-line, and finish the run, and win. In my prime, about 25 years ago, I was probably in this rank. But my vision has suffered loss, and my mechanics (stance, stroke, etc.) are not as sound as they once were. But I am good friends with many “really-good” players, and enjoy competing with them. I’m never too old or experienced to learn. This, by the way, is another critical principle. Never stop learning. You will not improve your game unless you observe the best, and play people who are better than you are. A friend of mine runs a local pool hall in Tallmadge, Ohio. I would rank him in the upper-eshalons of “really-good”. I enjoy shooting with him. I expect to lose more than I win. But, if I apply myself, his level will bring out the best hidden deep within me.

Great players know what the cue ball will do. They master the white rock. They run racks because they play good position. And when their opponents leave them tough, they not only think about making a successful hit, they often then send the cue ball to a hiding place- returning safety for safety. That is awesome pool for watching!

My next installment in this series will be on mechanics.

published Sep 05, 2008 at:


History of the Drive-In Movie

The family would pile in the car on Saturday night, with a packed cooler of goodies (because you didn’t want to pay concession stand prices). There would be a playground in the front of the huge screen. There would be one or two cartoons before the featured film. Mom and dad would slouch in the front seat so the kids in the back could see the screen. If no car was using the speaker beside you, you could have one for the front seat and one for the back seat. Drive-in movie theaters were a family fun night.

Or you were taking your best girl to see the latest horror movie because you knew that, if you were watching the movie, she’d get scared and hang on tightly to you. Maybe she would like to climb in the back seat to… socialize with you. Drive-in movie theaters were a fun place to start a family.

Drive-in Movies History

On June 6, 1933, Richard M. Hollingshead from Camden, New Jersey realized his dream, opening the first drive-in movie theater. The featured film was titled: “Wife Beware”. He had spent a long time developing the idea, beginning with a sheet, a radio, and a projector in his back yard. He considered every possible foreseeable problem, and ironed them out. The idea was a success!

By 1942, there were ninety-five drive-in movie theaters across the United States. In 1958, that number exploded to almost 5,000. Theaters would host Open Houses to teach customers about the parking, speaker systems, and concessions. They included playgrounds, fireworks, talent shows, boat rides, pony rides, and animal shows.

In Copiague, New York was a famous drive-in theater experience. On 28 acres, a shuttle train would transport customers from their cars to various locations on the grounds. It had 2,500 parking spaces, and indoor 1,200 seat viewing room, a playground, a cafeteria, and a full-service restaurant.

During the ’60’s, popularity started to dwindle. Theaters began specializing in certain types of movies to attempt to appeal to specific audiences. For example, some drive-in movie theaters showed family-oriented films, whereas some others featured films with teen appeal. Some theaters specialized in “adult” movies (the now-defunct “Rated X”). Throughout the ’70’s, drive-in movie theaters were closing down faster than new ones were opening.

With the onset of cable TV and video rentals, combined with the affordability of first-run films, the drive-ins were becoming extinct. By the early 1980’s, nearly 1,000 drive-in theaters stood vacant, empty lots across the U.S.

In 2007, Ohio had the greatest number of drive-ins than any other state, 31. As of 2010, there were fewer than 500 drive-in movie theaters remaining in operation in America. Though they will never see the popularity of the past, there has been a resurgence of interest in recent years. Perhaps some people just didn’t want to lose that piece of Americana.

5 Surprising Foods that Reverse Heart Disease

Millions of Americans have some form of heart disease, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart attack, and cardiomyopathy. Millions more are at risk of developing heart disease. Sedentary lifestyles, dangerous diet decisions, and smoking increase the risk.

To avoid heart disease requires diligence and discipline. If you do not currently have any cardiovascular problems, you can make the changes necessary and never have them. See your doctor regularly, exercise regularly, do not smoke, and make better food choices.

If, however, you already have some form(s) of heart disease, you MUST take positive action. Reversing heart disease is possible if the condition is discovered early enough. That is the primary reason for regular checkups. Getting regular exercise strengthens the entire circulatory system. Avoiding smoking and other destructive behavior decreases the chances of heart disease getting worse. It may not be reversible if there is enough damage, but proper diet can stop the advancement of damage to the heart.

As for diet, there are foods that reverse heart disease. These foods should be a regular part of your eating plan:

Blueberries- Blueberries are not only a delicious fruit. They are a “super food”, very rich in vitamin C, fiber, and anthocyanins. These are the antioxidants which give blueberries their dark color. A general rule of thumb for heart-healthy fruit is: The darker the color, the better it is for you.
Soy Protein- Soy is vitamin-and-mineral-rich. Regularly including soy in your diet increases fiber and lowers triglycerides. Soy is also an excellent source for polyunsaturated fats. Those are the good fats, which lower bad cholesterol (LDL). The most common form sold is tofu, which is made from soy beans. It actually has almost no flavor in itself, but takes on the flavor of whatever you cook it with. It can be a superior meat substitute, and a fabulous source of protein.
Salmon- Salmon is a tasty fish that is high in Omega 3 fatty acids. Omega 3 has been found to be very effective in breaking down LDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol). Salmon is versatile, and a good source of protein and vitamins.
Oatmeal- Oats, in general, are also good fiber. Oatmeal is a delicious LDL-lowering food. Put some blueberries on it and you have a heart-healthy breakfast.
Spinach- The rule of thumb for vegetables is basically the same as fruit: The darker the color, the better it is for you. Of the foods that reverse heart disease, spinach is also a “super food”. Fresh spinach added with lettuce, makes an excellent heart-healthy salad. Cooked spinach (do not add salt!) with a little cider vinegar is a very healthy side dish. Spinach is loaded with vitamins and minerals.

Reversing heart disease , or slowing it’s progress can add years to your life. And those may be the best years of your life, because you are healthier. Changing our lives can be hard. But these changes can save your life. Get in the habit of reading labels. Avoid high-sodium foods. Eat right. Exercise daily. Find some positive way(s) to handle stress. Be healthy!

Foods that Help Lower Cholesterol

There are two types of cholesterol. They are:

  1. Low- density lipoproteins (LDL)

  2. High-density lipoproteins (HDL)

When considering cholesterol levels in the body, it’s important to understand what each of these do, as well as how they interact with each other. Then, discovering foods that lower cholesterol will make more sense.

LDL is called the “bad cholesterol”. It causes fatty deposits, called plaques, in the arteries. High LDL levels can cause heart attack, stroke, embolisms, arteriosclerosis (commonly called “hardening of the arteries”), and a host of other problems. A diet high in this fat, combined with a sedentary lifestyle will shorten life.

HDL, however, is called the “good cholesterol”. As these fatty acids pass through the bloodstream, they carry the LDL away. High HDL levels will lower LDL levels. A person who has had a lipid profile (also called a “lipid panel”) has a measurement of four types of fat in their blood. The lipid panel tells the LDL level, the HDL level, the Triglycerides level, and a total cholesterol level. The body converts unused calories into triglycerides and stores them in fat cells . They are later released for energy. It’s entirely possible to have a regular LDL level, and yet a low HDL. That can be a problem. If not corrected, the LDL level will increase. That person needs to increase foods that are rich in Omega-3 fats and decrease foods high in Omega-6.

Scientists have estimated the best ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in our bodies should be between 1:1 and 1:4. The average American diet consumes ten times the appropriate amount of omega-6 acids, and not nearly enough omega-3. These two specific fatty acids, in their various forms, are called “Essential Fatty Acids” (EFA), because there are health benefits from both. However, too much omega-6 is dangerous.

Some good sources of omega-3 are:

  • flax seed oil

  • canola oil

  • soybean oil

  • walnuts

  • dairy products

  • beans

  • broccoli

  • salmon

  • mackerel

  • lake trout

  • herring

  • sardines

  • albacore tuna

All of these are foods that lower cholesterol, specifically LDL. Also, fiber is essential in fighting the cholesterol battle.

Some other foods, that may surprise some people, are known to aid the body in releasing fat that is stored. This process is called “metabolism”. A healthy body will have a high metabolism, which decreases body fat, and maintains good cholesterol levels:

  • Calcium sources- greens, yogurt, milk, Brazil nuts, Parmesan, Swiss, Feta, and Mozzarella cheeses

  • Protein sources- beans, nuts, eggs, lentils, poultry, salmon, lobster

  • Vitamin C sources- broccoli rabe (also called rapini), escarole, citrus fruits, red pepper, cantaloupe, kiwi, strawberries

  • Vinegar

  • Red wine (in small amounts)

If a person is eating a well-balanced diet, exercising regularly, and perhaps taking some nutritional supplements (a multivitamin and perhaps an omega-3 supplement), cholesterol should not be a problem. However, some people have a genetic proclivity for high LDL levels. They need to make special effort to monitor and manage the situation. Having a lipid profile done every two years is a safe measure.